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The NGRI Recommendations
List of some significant earthquakes in India and its neighborhood
Gradients
The jutting flaws for main doors
Operational flaws of Doors
 
 
It is more evident that Ancient Vaasthu Scholars made the norms to withstand against earthquakes. It can be seen in extension of wedge-shape for stone columns, beams, and slabs in the construction of temples, monuments, and houses in those days.

As per latest findings that went after big earthquake hit turkey the loss of properties and lives could have been reduced to 10% if the shear walls at particular places might have built in each building in ground floor. As per Vaasthu the 2/3rd portion of west and south should be closed (without openings, windows, and ventilators). This two walls act as right-angled shear wall for all buildings built according to Vaasthu (specially for wall-bearing structures) to withstand S-type seismic waves.

The architects and designers have to get the seismic data from regional meteorological department and follow the recommendations made before designing the building. Following are the few recommendations of NGRI:

 
THE NGRI RECOMMENDATIONS
The national geophysical research institute at Hyderabad, in its report on earthquake hazards in AP, INDIA and mitigation measures, in may 1999, had placed Hyderabad in zone 2 of the seismic zoning map. This means that Hyderabad could witness earthquakes of magnitudes up to five on the ritcher scale.

In its upgraded zoning, the city has now been placed in zone 3, indicating that it could witness earthquakes of up to six on the ritcher scale.

The report prepared for the revenue department of the state government states that there are no areas in AP, which are free from earthquakes, and in fact, Hyderabad lies in an area of “concentration” of earthquakes.

The report stated that in the recent past, Hyderabad region had witnessed one earthquake below the magnitude of 5; one of magnitude between 4 –4.9; two of magnitudes between 3 – 3.9; and 14 earthquakes with magnitudes below 3 on the ritcher scale.

The damage to various housing types in the event of an earthquake would depend on the quake’s intensity, soil conditions and various factors concerning the construction itself, among these are architectural planning, structural detailing, quality of construction and care taken in maintenance.

In keeping with this, they prescribed certain do’s and don’ts for brick houses. The most important amongst which are:

 
1 The building plan should be in a regular shape of a rectangle or square.
2 No wall in room should exceed 3.5m in hilly terrain or use cross walls or pilasters.
3 The height of each story should be kept below 3.2m
4 A skewed/deformed/cracked/badly baked yellow brick with compression strength of less than 35 kg/cm should be avoided and neither should be a skewed or deformed hollow or solid concrete blocks are used.
5 The cement and sand ratio should be not less than 1:6;that of lime and sand 1:3 and cement and lime and sand 1:2:9.
6 The foundation should go at least 15 cm deep into the rocky earth, which has been previously faltered
7 Foundation depth should at least be 50 cm in sandy soil or soil with murrum and the width should be minimum of 75 cm.
8 Thickness of load bearing walls should be at least 20cm.
9 Vertical joints in each brick course should be discontinued.
10 A lintel band of reinforced concrete should be used over doors and windows in each story.
11 Horizontal and vertical reinforcement bars should be used if a gable band or truss cannot be used, when replacing a wall in the triangular wall of the gable end.
12 A 16mm bar should be used on the ground floor and 12mm bar elsewhere if the construction is 3 storied.
13 The foundation depth should be more than 1.2m wherever the depth of black soil is more than 2000mm.
14 Pedestal poles and under-reamed piles should be used wherever the depth of black soil is up to 2000mm.
15 Bracing should be used with trusses in tiled roofs.
16 And flat roofs should preferably be of RCC, iron girders or t-iron.
17 17. The APHC RECOMMENDATIONS
18 The house should be provided with two horizontal bands (at the roof and lintel level) in addition to plinth beam in case of weak soils.
19 If horizontal beams cannot be pre-cast corner l-shaped bands should be provided.
20 Vertical reinforcements are a must on all corners
21 Doors and windows must be properly located and the lintel must sufficiently long.
22 One 8mm rod all around the door and windows should be provided
23 No cantilever or projections should be allowed.
 
 
  List of some significant earthquakes in India and its neighborhood
DATE EPICENTRE   LOCATION MAGNITUDE
  Lat( Deg N ) Long( Deg E )    
1819 JUN 16 23.6 68.6 KUTCH,GUJARAT
8
1869 JAN 10 25 93 NEAR CACHAR, ASSAM
7.5
1885 MAY 30 34.1 74.6 SOPOR, J&K
7
1897 JUN 12 26 91 SHILLONGPLATEAU
8.7
1905 APR 04 32.3 76.3 KANGRA, H.P
8
1918 JUL 08 24.5 91 SRIMANGAL, ASSAM
7.6
1930 JUL 02 25.8 90.2 DHUBRI, ASSAM
7.1
1934JAN 15 26.6 86.8 BIHAR-NEPALBORDER
8.3
1941 JUN 26 12.4 92.5 ANDAMAN ISLANDS
8.1
1943 OCT 23 26.8 94 ASSAM
7.2
1950 AUG 15 28.5 96.7 ARUNACHAL PRADESH-CHINA BORDER
8.5
1956 JUL 21 23.3 70 ANJAR, GUJARAT
7
1967 DEC 10 17.37 73.75 KOYNA, MAHARASHTRA
6.5
1975 JAN 19 32.38 78.49 KINNAUR, HP
6.2
1988 AUG 06 25.13 95.15 MANIPUR-MYANMAR BORDER
6.6
1988 AUG 21 26.72 86.63 BIHAR-NEPAL BORDER
6.4
1991 OCT 20 30.75 78.86 UTTARKASHI, UP HILLS
6.6
1993 SEP 30 18.07 76.62 LATUR-OSMANABAD, MAHARASHTRA
6.3
1997 MAY 22 23.08 80.06 JABALPUR,MP
6
1999 MAR 29 30.41 79.42 CHAMOLI DIST, UP
6.8
2001 JAN 26 23.4 70.23 BHUJ , GUJARAT
6.9
  Gradients
There are few norms for the water (either rainwater or drainage or sullage) flows from the house and the plot. As per vaasthu these are good and bad results according to the direction of flow of water:
Northeast
prosperity
east health and wealth
Southeast loss of children
South separation
Southwest death
West wealth
northwest fear of enemies
North joyous
And along all uchcha sthanas are good as shown in figure.
There will be abundant of cosmic rays in northeast, east and north which purifies and disinfects the water.
The jutting flaws for main doors
Vaasthu gave the effect if the main door faces the following:
If the main door faces The effect Reason
A Street destruction
accidental intrusion by heavily loaded vehicles.
A tree loss of children hindrance of cosmic rays.
Corner of opposite House
multiple worries meissner effect on layout (Irregular Electro-magnetism)
Well epilepsy harmful gases present in wells.
Temple death of wife frequent visits of kith and kin.
Graveyard psychic problems coming in contact of diffused ash and gases.
Flagpole penury hindrance of cosmic rays
 
Operational flaws of Doors
Vaasthu gave effect of flaws of positioning and operation of doors.
 
Condition and position effect
If Door closes by itself mental disorders
Opens by itself harm to the family
Operates with difficulty agony
Fells inside loss of property
Fells outside chances of migration
Operates with sound fear of theft
 
Vaasthu suggests us designing the door without all these operational difficulties in total.Some of these results can be experienced significantly in long run.
 
position Result
If the Door kept at northeast evil effect of charaka
Southeast evil effect of vidhari
Southwest evil effect of puthana
Northwest evil effect of papa (demon)
 
If the main door provided at corners of the house in the place of pilasters and weakens structure. They suggested us placing the door keeping some space from the corners. Probably Vaasthu Scholars might have given the place for demons outside the plinth (area of construction) at corners to create the fear of walking on that region to avoid doors on corners.